Depleted dopamine in gastric cancer tissues: dopamine treatment retards growth of gastric cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis

Depleted dopamine in gastric cancer tissues: dopamine treatment retards growth of gastric cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis. cancer risk were also shown with individual antipsychotic compounds including thioridazine, haloperidol, sulpiride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, and risperidone. A sensitivity analysis showed that second\generation antipsychotics had significant dose\dependent effects in reducing o-Cresol the risk of gastric cancer risk in patients with and without peptic ulcer disease. Conclusions Antipsychotic use was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and dose\dependent effects against gastric cancer were also seen with several individual antipsychotic compounds. infection is a confirmed risk factor.10, 11, 12 Morishita et al13 reported that sulpiride, a first\generation antipsychotic (FGAs), had killing effects in vitro for infection). Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, peptic ulcer, liver cirrhosis, psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder were defined as comorbid medical disorders. One previous study found patients with schizophrenia had lower incidence of gastric cancer during 9\year follow\up period,18 so we included psychotic disorder as an important confounding factor and then adjusted it. Previous studies have reported that heavy alcohol drinking and smoking are risk factors for gastric cancer,11, 19, 20 but alcohol drinking and smoking are not recorded in the NHIRD. Therefore, we examined alcohol\related disease instead of alcohol drinking, and assessed COPD as a proxy for smoking status. 2.3. Statistical methods We reported descriptive statistics o-Cresol for personal characteristics, medical use, and comorbid illness of gastric cancer cases and controls. We carried out conditional logistic regression models using SAS Version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). To investigate the impact of antipsychotics on gastric cancer risk, the cumulative exposure was divided into four subgroups by DDDs, as mentioned above. We adjusted the personal data and confounding factors, and calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted OR. A valuevaluevalueinfection which is a confirmed risk factor for gastric cancer.10, 11, 12 After conducting adjusted analysis, there was a decrease in gastric cancer risk associated with triple therapy. Results from recent studies have identified that eradication was associated with decreased gastric cancer risk;21, 22, 23 thus we controlled triple therapy and peptic ulcer diseases as impartment confounding factors in the further analysis. 3.3. Individual antipsychotics The association between individual antipsychotics and gastric cancer risk is shown in Table ?Table3.3. The exact duration of antipsychotics use was provided in the Appendix o-Cresol 2. The negative association with gastric cancer risk remained when FGAs o-Cresol and SGAs were examined separately: the ORs for cDDD 168 were 0.39 (95% CI?=?0.31\0.50) and 0.21 (95% CI?=?0.13\0.33), respectively. Three FGAs (ie, thioridazine, haloperidol, and sulpiride) and six common SGAs (ie, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, risperidone, and aripiprazole) were analyzed, and all antipsychotic compounds showed negative associations with gastric cancer risk except aripiprazole. Besides, dose\dependent protective trends were considered. Table 3 Association between individual antipsychotics and gastric cancer risk valuevaluevaluevalue /th /thead Antipsychotics 0\2731830 (92.34)149808 (91.66)1.00 [reference]?28\831580 (4.54)7345 (4.49)0.95 (0.90\1.01)0.07384\167543 (1.58)2473 (1.51)0.97 (0.88\1.07)0.38168517 (1.50)3804 (2.33)0.65 (0.59\0.72) 0.0001 FGAs b 0\2731898 (92.54)150256 (91.94)1.00 [reference]?28\831565 (4.54)7316 (4.48)0.95 (0.90\1.01)0.07384\167528 (1.53)2451 (1.50)0.96 (0.87\1.06)0.38168479 (1.39)3407 (2.08)0.68 (0.61\0.75) 0.0001 SGAs b 0\2734253 o-Cresol (99.37)161519 (98.83)1.00 [reference]?28\8382 (0.24)476 (0.29)0.75 (0.59\0.96)0.0284\16741 (0.12)290 (0.18)0.66 (0.48\0.93)0.0216894 (0.27)1145 (0.27)0.42 (0.33\0.52) 0.0001 N05AC02 Thioridazine ????0\2734438 (99.91)163040 (99.76)1.00 [reference]?28\8318 (0.05)155 (0.09)0.62 (0.38\1.01)0.05484\1674 (0.01)71 (0.04)0.31 (0.11\0.86)0.02516810 (0.03)164 (0.10)0.37 (0.19\0.70)0.0022 N05AD01 Haloperidol ????0\2734354 (99.66)162224 (99.26)1.00 [reference]?28\8358 (0.17)484 (0.30)0.59 (0.44\0.78)0.000284\16721 (0.06)214 (0.13)0.52 (0.33\0.82)0.004616837 (0.11)508 (0.31)0.43 (0.30\0.60) 0.0001 N05AL01 Sulpiride ????0\2732858 (95.32)155206 (94.97)1.00 [reference]?28\83960 (2.79)4430 (2.71)0.98 (0.91\1.05)0.5084\167338 (0.98)1660 (1.02)0.93 (0.82\1.05)0.23168314 (0.91)2134 (1.31)0.71 (0.63\0.80) 0.0001 N05AH02 Clozapine ????0\2734461 (99.97)163291 (99.91)1.00 [reference]?289 (0.03)139 (0.09)0.46 (0.23\0.90)0.024 N05AH03 Olanzapine ????0\2734463 (99.98)163171 (99.84)1.00 [reference]?287 (0.02)259 (0.16)0.18 (0.08\0.37) 0.0001 N05AH04 Quetiapine ????0\2734293 (99.49)162481 (99.42)1.00 [reference]?28\8325 (0.07)269 (0.16)0.46 (0.30\0.72) 0.000184\16710 (0.03)151 (0.09)0.52 (0.28\0.95)0.0004168142 (0.41)529 (0.32)0.18 (0.07\0.49)0.023 N05AL05 Amisulpride ????0\2734462 (99.98)163321 (99.93)1.00 [reference]?288 (0.02)109 (0.07)0.49 (0.24\1.02)0.057 N05AX08 Risperidone ????0\2734381 (99.74)162392 (99.36)1.00 [reference]?28\8336 (0.10)332 (0.20)0.52 (0.36\0.74)0.000384\16717 (0.05)186 (0.11)0.46 (0.28\0.76)0.002416836 (0.10)520 (0.32)0.41 (0.29\0.57) 0.0001 N05AX12 Aripiprazole ????0\2734468 (99.99)163373 (99.97)1.00 [reference]?282 (0.01)57 (0.03)0.23 (0.06\0.96)0.044 Open in a separate window Abbreviations: ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical; CI, confidence interval; FGAs, first\generation antipsychotics; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti\inflammatory drugs; SGAs, second\generation antipsychotics. Drug dose usage is the cumulative defined daily days excluding the year before the index date. aAdjusted for sex, age, income, urbanization, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, chronic kidney disease, depressive disorder, peptic ulcer, alcohol\related liver disease, psychotic disorder, anxiety disorder, aspirin, NSAIDs, and triple therapy. bFGAs and SGAs Rabbit Polyclonal to ZNF280C are listed in the appendix. Notes Hsieh Y\H, Chan H\L, Lin C\F, et al. Antipsychotic use is inversely associated with gastric cancer risk: A nationwide population\based.