Supplementary MaterialsAdditional file 1: Table S1. reveal that UCMSCs or UCMSC-CM accelerated wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis. The number of host macrophages recruited to the wound tissue by local infusion of UCMSCs was greater than that recruited by fibroblast transplantation or control. The frequency of M2 macrophages was increased by CPPHA UCMSC transplantation or UCMSC-CM injection, which CPPHA promoted the expression of cytokines derived from M2 macrophages. Furthermore, when cocultured with UCMSCs or UCMSC-CM, lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages acquired an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype characterized by the increased secretion of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor and the suppressed production of tumor necrosis factor- and IL-6. UCMSC-CM-activated macrophages significantly enhanced diabetic vascular endothelial cell functions, including angiogenesis, migration, and chemotaxis. Moreover, the action of UCMSC-CM on macrophages or vascular endothelial PPARG cells was abrogated by the administration of neutralizing antibodies against prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or by the inhibition of PGE2 secretion from UCMSCs. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that UCMSCs can induce the functional restoration of vascular endothelial cells via the remodeling of macrophage phenotypes, which might contribute to the marked acceleration of wound healing in diabetic mice. Graphical Abstract for 10?min), and stored at ??20?C until the levels of cytokines were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro angiogenesis assays Subconfluent HUVECs were harvested with trypsin/EDTA, seeded into 6-well plates at 4??105 cells/well, and CPPHA incubated overnight to allow adhesion. Adherent cells were then incubated under high-glucose concentration (30?mM) conditions in EGM-2 for 72?h. Subconfluent HUVECs were incubated overnight in EGM-2 plus 2% FBS containing NCM, UCMSC-CM diluted 1:4, or cocultured with LPS-treated macrophages or UCMSC-CM-treated macrophages. These HUVECs were detached with trypsin/EDTA and resuspended in EBM-2 plus 0.1% FBS containing NCM, UCMSC-CM diluted 1:4, or cocultured with LPS-treated macrophages or UCMSC-CM-treated macrophages. The formation of network structures was assessed using the reduced growth element Matrigel? (BD Biosciences) heavy gel method based on the producers instructions. HUVECs had been seeded at 3??104 cells/well in 6-well slide chambers in 100?L of Matrigel. The chambers had been incubated beneath the above mentioned four circumstances at 37?C and 5% CO2 over night. The wells had been after that photographed under phase-contrast inverted microscopy at ?4 and ?10 magnification. For every condition, network expansion was assessed using the ImageJ software program, as described  previously. Each condition was examined in sextuplicate, as well as the assay twice was repeated. In vitro migration assays The power of UCMSCs to stimulate HUVEC migration was examined in the damage assay. HUVECs expanded to create a confluent monolayer in 100?g/mL fibronectin-coated 6-very well plates were starved in EBM-2 containing 0.1% FBS under high-glucose focus (30?mM) circumstances for 24?h. A central damage was made by scraping cells aside having a 200-L pipette suggestion. Following the removal of CPPHA particles by cleaning the cells with PBS, cells had been incubated with EBM-2 including 2?mM hydroxyurea (Sigma-Aldrich) to induce development arrest in the current presence of NCM, UCMSC-CM diluted 1:4, or cocultured with LPS-treated macrophages or UCMSC-CM-treated macrophages. Before incubation and after 24?h of incubation, cells were washed. Scrapes had been photographed at ?4 magnification at 25%, 50%, and 75% from the damage length and range. The scratch region was assessed using the ImageJ software program before and after incubation. Each.